Fonds 21-003 - Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada fonds. 2021 additions

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Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada fonds. 2021 additions

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  • Textual record

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  • Source of title proper: Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada

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  • ca. 1960-2003 (Creation)
    Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada

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44 cm of textual records

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Administrative history

The Indian-Eskimo Association had its origins in the Canadian Association for Adult Education (CAAE) when the CAAE appointed a committee to study the problems of natives in communities when natives were off the reserve. This committee became known as the National Commission on the Indian Canadian and it functioned as a standing committee of the CAAE. In 1960 the Commission withdrew from the CAAE and was incorporated as the Indian-Eskimo Association. Its services, at this time, were expanded to include all people of native origin, both on and off reserves, and the natives of the north who were known as Eskimos. Its first president was Clare Evelyn Clark. The Indian-Eskimo Association was a national citizen's organization with membership open to all people interested in promoting the well-being of Native Americans. Native people formed 25% of the membership and at all times had members on the Board of Directors. Headquarters for the Association were in Toronto and in 1973 moved to Ottawa. When the Association moved to Ottawa its name changed to the Canadian Association in Support of Native Peoples. The IEA was active in fund raising, organizing workshops to discuss native housing, and community and economic development.

Custodial history

Fonds was in the custody of Eleanor Wilma Sutherland, M.D. (1928-2021) of Ottawa, Ontario. The documents were in her home until Dr. Sutherland’s death on 9 January 2021, and were retained by her son, James Sutherland, who gifted them to Trent University in August 2021.

Scope and content

Fonds consists of correspondence, briefs, speeches, minutes, legal documents, copies of Treaties, budget documents, newsletters, bulletins and booklets pertaining to the Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada in the 1960s and 1970s. Also included are a few documents pertaining to Dr. Eleanor Wilma Sutherland and a Grandin College Yearbook belonging to Richard McNeely.

Notes area

Physical condition

The fonds is musty smelling and some documents show evidence of foxing. Some pages also show signs of inactive mould; these were photocopied and then discarded.

Immediate source of acquisition

Fonds acquired by Trent University Archives from James Sutherland in 2021.


The documents of this fonds were received without folders and appeared to have no discernable order. Order was imposed by Archives staff.

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Associated materials

Associated material located at Library and Archives Canada and Archives of Ontario.


This fonds is an addition to 95-006.

General note

Researchers should consider wearing a mask when handling this fonds.

General note

Dr. Eleanor Sutherland, the original custodian of this fonds, was a long-time supporter of social justice for Canada’s Indigenous Peoples. She was active on the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry, led by Justice Thomas Berger, and served on the Board of Directors of the Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, 1969-74, and as director of the Canadian Association in Support of Native People, 1974-75. Dr. Sutherland was an acquaintance of Professor T.H.B. Symons, Trent University’s Founding President, through her association with the IEA and CASNP.

General note

Box 1



  1. June 1965 - December 1968
  2. January 1969 – January 1970
  3. February – November 1970
  4. January – December 1971
  5. January – December 1972
  6. January – May 1973
  7. June 1973 – May 2003
  8. No date

Legal Documents

  1. Two legal documents issued to Canadian Association in Support of Native Peoples (CASNP) document re Supplementary Letters Patent, 1972 and 1974; also, two Province of Quebec District of Montreal Superior Court documents (No. 05-04841-72): “Petition for an Interlocutory Injunction,” and “Amended Declaration”, both dated 1972

Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada (IEA), CASNP, & other meeting minutes and agendas (scattered only)

  1. IEA: Annual meetings, review meetings, Citizens Support Committee, 1969-1970
  2. IEA: Mid-term Board of Directors meetings, Personnel, Nominating and Coordinating Committees, 1969-1972
  3. IEA: Executive Committee meetings, June 1969 – February 1972
  4. CASNP: Executive Committee meetings, 1972-1973
  5. CASNP: Expenses, Nominating Committee, President & Ex-director Board of Directors, 1972-1977
  6. Indian & Metis Friendship Centre (1964), Yukon Native Brotherhood (n.d.), New Brunswick Indian Development Fund (1970)

Treaties (reprints)

• “Treaties 1 and 2 between Her Majesty the Queen and the Chippewa and Cree Indians of Manitoba and Country Adjacent with Adhesions”
• “Treaty No. 3 between Her Majesty the Queen and the Saulteaux Tribe of the Ojibbeway Indians at the Northwest Angle on the Lake of the Woods with Adhesions”
• “Treaty No. 4 between Her Majesty the Queen and the Cree and Saulteaux Tribes of Indians at Qu’Appelle and Fort Ellice”
• “Treaty No. 5 between Her Majesty the Queen and the Saulteaux and Swampy Cree Tribes of Indians at Beren’s River and Norway House with Adhesions”
• “Copy of Treaty No. 6 between Her Majesty the Queen and the Plain and Wood Cree Indians and Other Tribes of Indians at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt and Battle River with Adhesion”
• “Copy of Treaty and Supplementary Treaty No. 7, made 22nd Sept., and 4th Dec., 1877, between Her Majesty the Queen and the Blackfeet and Other Indian Tribes, at the Blackfoot Crossing of Bow River ad Fort MacLeod”
• “Treaty No. 8 made June 21, 1899 and Adhesions, Reports, etc.”
• “The James Bay Treaty - Treaty No. 9 (made in 1905 and 1906) and Adhesions made in 1939 and 1930”
• “Treaty No. 10 and Reports of Commissioners”
• “Treaty No. 11 (June 27, 1921) and Adhesion (July 17, 1922) with reports, etc.”
• “Copy of the Robinson Treaty made in the Year 1850 with the Ojibewa Indians of Lake Superior Conveying Certain Lands to the Crown” (two versions)
• “Copy of the Treaty made October 31, 1923 between His Majesty the King and the Chippewa Indians of Christian Island, Georgina Island and Rama”

Budgetary documents

  1. IEA miscellaneous balance sheets, statements, etc., 1969-1973

Newsletters, Bulletins, Booklets, etc.

  1. Various Indigenous newsletters, scattered issues only, 1960s & 1970s
  2. Newspaper & magazine articles, 1960s
  3. IEA bulletins and reports, scattered issues only, 1960s & 1970s
  4. CASNP bulletins and reports, scattered issues only, 1960s & 1970s
  5. Booklets: Indians of Ontario (1966); Indians of British Columbia (1967); Indians and the Law (1967); The Indian in Transition: The Indian Today (1969); Native Rights in Canada (1970); Indians of Canada: Program Suggestions by Jessie Oliver (1969); [Free to Bee] (1971); Legends of T’Sou-Ke and West Coast Bands (1978)
  6. Pamphlets, [1960s & 1970s]


  1. House of Commons Debates, 28th Parliament, Indian Affairs, Issue #12 (1969) and Issue #18 (1970); Bill 50 National Assembly of Quebec (1971); Native People of Canada; photocopies of articles on Indigenous subjects
  2. “Indian School” – Micmac language materials, 1970s & undated
  3. IEA: various documents, 1966-1971 plus undated
  4. “Indian Events/Statistics”, 1974-1978 plus undated
  5. Ontario Natives Development Fund / CASNP, 1969-1970 plus undated
  6. Miscellaneous documents, 1962-2003
  7. Miscellaneous documents, no date
  8. Eleanor Sutherland, M.D., documents: Indian and Metis Friendship Centre certificate for completion of course in Cree (n.d.); Indian and Metis Friendship Centre membership card (1964-1965); photograph of an unidentified woman (Dr. Sutherland?)

Yearbook: Grandin College (NWT), “The Light”, 1967-1968: appears to have belonged to Richard McNeely; autographed by many students

Box 2

Reports, Briefs, Papers, Speeches, Submissions

Acadian Miracle / Dudley J. LeBlanc, n.d.

An Action Research Project on “Indians and The City” / The Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, September 1967

An Action Research Project on the Problems of Migrating Native People / The Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, 25 September1969

American Indian and the Bureau of Indian Affairs – 1969, A Study with Recommendations / The Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, 24 February 1969

Analysis of Indian Position Papers, February 1973

Brief In Response to the Indian Policy Statement of the Canadian Government of June 1969 / Canadian Friends Service Committee, 12 December 1969

The Canadian Association in Support of Native Peoples / W. G. McConkey, n.d.

The Canadian Indian in Ontario’s School Texts – A Study of Social Studies Textbooks Grades 1 Through 8 / Rosamund M. Vanderburgh, 1968

Factors Associated with Migration Plans of Native Youth Erasmus / D. Monu, 28-30 May 1975

Farming For Canadian Indians? – An Economist’s View / Helen Buckley, January 1970

Field Trip Report, 12-20 March 1970

Field Trip Report, 5-14 April 1970

Forced Relocation: An Evaluation Case Study / John S. Matthiasson, n.d.

Health Service Delivery Problems in Northern Canada / J. H. Wiebe, May 1970

History of Government Indian Policy, n.d.

The Indian Bands of Yukon Territory / H. J. Bredin, August 1971

Final Report – Indian and The City Contract with Secretary of State / The Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, March 1971

Citizen Indians: A New Frontier / The Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, May 1966

Report of By-Law Committee / The Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, 4 February 1971

Report of Discussions, Western regional meeting / The Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, 12 December 1970

Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, Report to the Mid-Term Board of Directors Meeting / Allan Clark, 19-21 February 1971

Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, Special Report on By-laws / W. H. Clark, 30 January – 1 February 1970

Indian Immigration Rights: Canada and the Jay Treaty Of 1794, n.d.

Indian Land Claims and Rights / L. I. Barber, October 1974

Indians and the City – Interim Reports / Strathmere Associates, n.d.

Indians of Labrador – An Introduction to Our Case, n.d.

Indians of Ontario / Department of Citizens and Immigration – Indian Affairs Branch, February 1962

The National Indian Brotherhood and a National Policy by Indian People, n.d.

Native Alcohol Council, n.d.

Native People of Canada / The Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, n.d.

Native Rights in Canada / The Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, 30 October 1969

Our City Indians / Saskatchewan House, 30 October – 1 November 1958

People and the North – Motivations, Objectives and Approach of the Canadian Arctic Resources Committee / Douglas H. Pimlott, May 1972

Placement Program for Indian children of Public School Age in Private Homes in Cases of Special Need – Under the Good Samaritan Plan / Earl F. Stotesburry, October 1959

Preliminary Assessment of Canadian Association in Support of the Native Peoples Bulletin and Consideration of the Bulletin’s Acceptance of Advertising / Doug Shepard, n.d.

Preliminary Results from a Study of 1966-71 Migration Patterns Among Status Indians in Canada / Andrew J. Siggner, 19 January 1977

Presentation to the Elkin Commission by the Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada / A. E. Bigwin and G. A Clark, 12 March 1971

Part II – Profile of Indians & Eskimos – 1968, n.d.

Radio and Television Service for Indian, Eskimo, and Metis Communities / The National Indian Brotherhood of Canada, The Canadian Metis Society and The Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, n.d.

Report Work with Canadian Indians, & Metis in Our Canadian Life / Earl F. Stotesbury, March 1960

Rights of Canada’s First Citizens – The Indian and Eskimo / E. R. McEwen, May 1968

Report of the Northwest Territories Division of the Indian Eskimo Association, 30 January - 1 February 1970

Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy / Jean Chrétien, 1969

Statement on Guidelines of Northern Pipelines / Canadian Arctic Resource Committee, 18 October 1972

Submission to Imperial Oil Limited (attached to a letter from Ronald S. Ritchie to John E. Gasson) / T.H.B. Symons and John E. Gasson, 25 May 1973

Urbanization of Indians / W. Currie, 20 August 1969

Zimbabwe African People’s Union / Edward Ndlovu, n.d.

Speech / Harold Cardinal, 27 October 1968

Speech / Harold Cardinal, to Meeting of the IEA and the Native Council of Canada, 14 December 1971

IEA National Executive Committee Report to Mid-term Board of Directors Meeting, 19-21 1971, Trent University

Excerpt from Annual Report of Executive Director of the IEA, Part II, Profile of Indians & Eskimos, June 1969

Statement / Stephen Lewis… on the relationship between a New Democratic government and the Ontario Indian Community, 24 September 1971

Report of the Citizens’ Support Committee, June 1972

Viewpoint / Boyce Richardson, 6 October 1971; 28 December 1971

IEA Report of Executive Director to the Eighth Annual Meeting / E.R. McEwen, 30 September 1967

Report: An Industrial Design Study Based on Traditional Iroquoian Art and Forms, 1969

General note

A few additional documents were received from James Sutherland in 2022. These were added to existing files.

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